When it Comes to Peace and Poverty So Much Depends Upon the Determination of the Leadership

A few small changes in the environment could do so much to alleviate a lot of the suffering in nations like Uganda and Kenya and the principles could be applied in other parts of the world where there is such appalling poverty. Take a moment to consider the vital role which leadership plays in this whole area. Many are desperately looking for powerful practical leadership when it comes to their environment and circumstances.

I am writing as a Christian, as a believer in Jesus Christ, and I rely upon the anointing and presence of the Holy Spirit to guide me and direct me when I go to speak to those who Pastor the poor and who have given their lives to caring for the poor with such genuine and sincere compassion.

These men are leaders I admire, and I seek to encourage them in all they attempt to achieve, as they work for righteousness and justice.

Some of these men and women spell faith, ‘RISK’. They risk their lives day by day as they reach out to those have nothing and who have to scavenge on the tips for something to eat.

I may go for three or four weeks but these local leaders are giving leadership of such high quality and when I see the work they are involved in and what they are seeking to do to rescue those is serious need it can and does bring tears to my eyes.

How can men in the United Kingdom and America accept such absurd sums as ‘bonuses’ when half the world is living on a pound a day or around a dollar a day.

When I see men and women following Jesus Christ and serving in the slums and orphanages, day after day, setting such an example, why do the government agencies not come alongside and give some extra help, instead of running around in expensive cars? There are leaders and there are ‘leaders’. You know what I mean.

I am not against expensive cars but I am against poverty and suffering.

Very often promotion to position of power and authority can introduce men to corruption. This is nothing other than sin.

Prophets seldom get promoted. Prophets get pelted!

We hear from the United Nations declarations concerning peace and poverty, when you consider these two words, we come to realise that peace and poverty can never co-exist.

Conflict brings poverty. War brings poverty. Fighting results in poverty as resources are squandered.

This is where the quality of governmental leadership and the leadership within the true Church of Jesus Christ is so crucially important.

Anger and hatred destroy so many lives not just in Kenya and Uganda but we see it in the United Kingdom too. There is a solution, but how many really want to know how these issues can be resolved, so that suffering may be alleviated and poverty positively confronted.

We have had so many words but words do not soothe aching bellies.

Again, so much depends upon the determination of the leadership.

Sandy Shaw

A Lack of Money Causes Depression – Increase Income to Overcome Depression and Poverty

Remember the last time you were depressed because you really wanted something but there was no money or you were short of the money it required? Remember the disappointment you felt in yourself? Did your mind start to tell you that you somehow fell short of your own self-goals and self-worth?

If you relate to those questions, I am with you. I hate not having money for something that is important to me. I hate not having money for something I simply desire! I am not going to hide it, because it is the truth and only the truth has brought me to the point that I have now reached. I want to help you reach your financial goals by teaching you how to work from home on the internet and make money. I want to help you feel good about yourself.

I love to be around happy people. Sad, depressed and broke people have low self-esteems and tend to have the magical dark powers of bringing others down around them. I have learned to not hang around those people, in particular.

That is my first suggestion: Get AWAY from losers, who always want a handout, abusers who always try to pull others down to feel good about themselves, and users who only come around when you have something that they can get–and get around people who love life, make money and if not making money at this time are seeking ways to do so, and people who are giving. These will be the backbone of your success when you need encouragement of any kind. I know you are a winner, otherwise you would not be reading this article. You have already determined that poverty is an ugly enemy to you and your loved ones and you have decided that it being broke is No Life For You! Financial Success is For You!

Good for you! That realization is the first step in obtaining the financial success that you deserve for a healthy and prosperous lifestyle and mentality. You have to decide to change your life if your self-esteem is lacking and is in direct proportion to a lack of money.

The question is how? It starts with direction. You would profit from sitting down with a pen and paper and make a list of exactly how a lack of finances is affecting you and directly relate the list to Where it affects your life. You can start by making a column list. It can be ten columns long and in each column you write down a name for the depression. Here is an example:

1. Income
2. Appearance
3. Friendships
4. Romance
5. Fun
6. Bills
7. Charity
8. Goals
9. Education
10. Family

Then, you would write under each subject how not having money is affecting your overall life in this area and how it makes you feel. By doing so, you will pinpoint the source of your depression deep down within and simultaneously treat it. Being able to recognize the problem is the first step to a resolution.

Under income, for example, you would write down that you feel as if you failed in life because you are living paycheck to paycheck. Because I feel as if I have failed myself, I feel depressed. And under the subject of Appearance: I do not care about my appearance and have let myself go. I cannot even afford to buy makeup. This makes me feel bad about myself on the outside, I am embarrassed to go around people and so I stay alone. This makes me feel depressed.

So, you go down the list and pinpoint the exact way that a lack of money affects you in all aspects of your life with honesty. Do not be easy on your feelings–trying to protect yourself from sadness. The entire task is done to change the sadness and to do so, it has to be honestly addressed.

There is no embarrassment for you at this point, because no one else has to ever see it! This is for you to make a change! If money has kept you from getting and education for anything that will bring you success, you should address it. It can simply be a self-help book, article, publication or online class about goal-setting. Search your memory for something that you did not get because you felt that you could not afford it. When you passed the opportunity up, you did not get the help that you could have given your own self.

So, now that you have a few examples of how having no money affects everything about you, you can work on your remedies. There is a remedy for depression just as there is a remedy for poverty!

Once you have completed your task of identifying the problems that a lack of finances has caused, you attack the problem vigilantly! You become a roaring lion and the prey is depression and poverty. You will win!

The Elements That Make the Key Difference Between Success and Poverty

What makes the difference between success and poverty? This is an issue that I have been mulling over in my mind for a very long time. Poverty is a state that has been with mankind since the beginning of the ages. Even in the time of Jesus thousands of years ago, there was already the poor among them.

Everywhere in the world in every country, global efforts are being held for poverty eradication. Most often, I see organizations and kindhearted individuals handing out money and food items to the poor, and where possible provide homes and shelter. While these efforts are noble, I do wonder about the effectiveness of it.

Personally, I find that the only way for a person to climb out of poverty, is an intense personal desire to succeed! Some people can be rather contented living on welfare and receiving handouts. In fact, some may consider it their right as the poor to receive gifts from people they deem richer than them. Poverty is a state of mind that continues to enslave people. For as long as they think that the world owes them a living, they would continue to stay in that same old sad state of life.

They do not break out of the chains of poverty because they deem themselves incapable, handicapped (whether real or imaginary), so they do not even try to make an effort. Any failed attempt that they make only reinforces their belief that they are not able to do it, not able to become successful and subscribe to the powerful withholding belief that success belongs only to others who are more talented, more intelligent and more capable.

The only way to break out of poverty is to change the mindset of the people and empower them with powerful beliefs that they are not helpless and that they can create value and contribute to the society regardless of their condition. They can make a success out of themselves.

The only real way to help the poor is to give them a real education and the opportunity for a job or a trade. All academic, skill and technical programs must include personal development programs which develop the human attitudes and radically change their mindset and implant a belief system for success.

Positive people with a burning desire to succeed never stay poor for long. Failed attempts only serve to spur them on and steel their resolve. Poverty is only a temporary state before they achieve success.

Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction – Making Growth Work For the Poor

1. Introduction

The question of whether economic growth leads to poverty reduction is a subject of major contention today. The neo-liberal view to this issue is that growth is good for the poor, and that poverty can be alleviated through economic growth. In this essay, I argue that unless the poor participate meaningfully in the economy and the constraints that hinder their participation are removed, growth on its own cannot help in poverty reduction. The state should also play a major role in making the poor benefit from growth by pursuing pro-poor policies. In the subsequent paragraphs, I define what pro-poor growth is; spell out the constraints to pro-poor growth and what can be done to make growth benefit the poor.

2. Definition of concept: pro-poor growth

According to Ravillion and Datt (1991:19), pro-poor growth can be defined as ‘growth that involves and benefits the poor’. In other words, pro-poor growth requires the maximum participation of marginalized groups in all sectors. Ravallion and Datt further argue that pro-poor growth is, inter alia, characterized by what they call ‘deliberate transfers to the ultra poor who are not able to lift themselves out of poverty. In essence, the argument that they are advancing is that the poor need help or intervention in order for them to benefit from growth. This means that pro-poor growth is a deliberate intervention to make the poor benefit from growth rather than leaving the poor to the fate of the ‘invisible’ hand of the market. It has to do with setting an enabling environment in which the poor have the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the economy.

According to Kydd et al (2001:10) pro-growth will occur when the following conditions exist:

 Price or productivity increases in tradable products with high average share in the poor’s expenditure.

 Price and productivity increase in tradable products with high labour inputs by the poor.

 Changes in technology or reduced barriers of entry, allowing the poor to engage in production of non-tradables which they could not previously engage in or

 Gains in the significant numbers of non-poor, which lead to expanded demands for goods or services, produced by the poor as a result of upstream or expenditure linkages.

It is important to note that not all growth is pro-poor. Here are some of the characteristics or aspects of growth which are not pro-poor:

 Disparities in wealth distribution

 Increases in rural poverty

 Growth that ignores agricultural development despite the role that it plays in poverty alleviation

 Lack of investment in health and education, which play a critical role in poverty alleviation

 Failure to mitigate inequalities and lack of programmes aimed at addressing the needs of the poor (www.seurities.com).

As Acocella (1998:162) notes, it is critical to remember that growth does not always lead to human development. Growth may occur without any significant impact on human development, especially with regard to the poor. Acocella further argues that real development or growth occurs when there is improvement in the well being of people. Growth that does not lead to improvement in the welfare of people cannot be said to be developmental in nature. Genuine growth, as Ferro et al (2002:4) note, should lead to human development, and this entails ‘empowering the poor to contribute to and benefit from this growth’. It is clear that pro-poor growth does not occur automatically without the implementation of the right policies that will be instrumental in facilitating its manifestation. There are polices and practices that may hinder pro-poor growth from taking place. I examine a few in the next section.

3. Constraints to pro-poor growth

For pro-poor growth to occur in any society, it is important to ensure that all the barriers that prevent the poor from reaching their goals are removed. Failure or reluctance to deal with such barriers may frustrate the progress of poor people and may ultimately hinder any poverty reduction strategy from successfully addressing the issue of poverty. Here are some of the constraints that can negatively affect pro-poor growth:

3.1 Inequality and lack of access to market

It is difficult to pursue pro-poor policies in countries characterized by inequality. Stewart (1995:209) argues that it is difficult to develop pro-poor policies in inegalitarian societies. He gives an example of inegalitarian societies such as Ghana, Mexico and Philippines, where he argues that growth has not made any impact on the poor. These societies are contrasted with Indonesia ‘with a more egalitarian structure to start with and a more pro-poor pattern of growth’. Other examples given are East Asian societies, which due to their effective policies of dealing with inequality were able to reduce the level of poverty in a dramatic way. This means that there is a relationship between poverty and inequality. May (2002:2) also shows that policies of inequality pursued by the apartheid government in South Africa were not good for poverty reduction as they excluded certain groups from participating in the economy of the country. The propagation of inequality led to ‘loss of assets such as land and livestock and simultaneously the denial of opportunities to develop these assets through limiting access to markets, infrastructure and education.

The problem with inequality is that it results in social exclusion where certain groups are denied opportunities or services. The exclusion of the poor from participating meaningfully in the economy can negatively affect their well being. In an economy where inequality is low, the poor will tend to get a higher share of the benefits from growth as compared to an economy which is characterized by a high degree of inequality. As Ravallion and Datt (1997:7) show, ‘inequality in the ownership of physical and human assets are likely to influence the prospects of poor people to participate in economic growth’. Policies that are pro-poor will ensure that the poor have access to markets and infrastructure. It is clear that in cases where there is no equality amongst the different socio-economic classes, reliance on market forces and the invisible hand of Adam Smith to meet basic needs is merely wishful thinking.

3.2 Fiscal constraints

Governments, especially in the developing countries are finding it hard to pursue pro-poor growth policies and approaches for poverty alleviation due to fiscal constraints. Structural Adjustment programmes are in most instances making matters worse. The reality is that governments are usually faced with the challenge of having to reduce expenditure in social services, which are supposed to benefit the poor. This means that less money is spent on important services such as health, education and other basic services. Cuts in government expenditure directly affect the poor (Howard 2001:57). However, it is important to note that the state is faced with global challenges and constraints in its attempt to pursue policies that are good for poverty alleviation. There is global pressure for the state to take a less ‘directive’ role in the economy.

3.3 Reducing the role of the state

The liberalization of markets which goes with globalization is among other things advocating for the rolling back of the state, the repeal of restrictions on prices and on quantities moved and stored. As Howard (2001:57) rightly notes, the ‘liberalization of financial markets increases poverty and inequality’. As part of globalization, governments are forced to liberalize their markets. However, the critical question is whether liberalization of markets benefit the poor. There are mixed reactions to this. There are those who view globalization as beneficial to the poor, especially with regard to opportunities it offers for trade and new markets. On the other hand there are those who view it as harmful.

As Levinson (2001:11) shows, globalization ‘benefits the poor in some countries and harm those in other countries’. Although there is a general call for ‘rolling back the state’, in order to give way to the markets to work (if ever they work), the state has a role to play especially pertaining to things that individuals cannot do for themselves. It is common especially among the poor to find people who cannot participate in the labour market due to old age, infirmity, chronic illness or otherwise incapacitated, socially excluded or discriminated. The poverty of such people according to Streeten (1995:253) cannot be removed or alleviated by relying on the market, but by deliberate ‘pressure for social services and transfer payments and elimination of discrimination’. The emphasis on reducing the role of the state in the economy can have negative impact on pro-poor growth.

For pro-poor growth to take place, the state should play a crucial role in the redistribution of resources and opportunities through the transfer of assets, prioritization of the poor in public spending and in managing market liberalization to protect the livelihoods of vulnerable people. As Ferro et al (2002:19) point out, ‘government is an instrument of the people in the development process’. Hence government can play a crucial role in pro-poor growth by developing the right policies for addressing poverty.

4. What can be done to benefit the poor?

The following are some of the things that can be done to benefit the poor:

 There is need to focus on development of human capital, especially among the poor in order to prepare them to participate meaningfully in the economy.

 The poor must have better access to markets, especially with regard to credit

 There is need to correct biases against the poor in public spending, taxation trade and regulatory environment.

5. Conclusion

Pro-poor growth policies are essential for the meaningful reduction of poverty. The 2015 target of halving income poverty can only be achieved if countries can adopt pro-poor growth strategies. It would be difficult to attain the 2015 target without ‘pro-poor shift in distributional patterns’ (Mutume 2000). Something must be done to improve the position of the poor by providing opportunities that will make access to markets easier for them. Worth noting is that even in cases where markets work, they may not always work in favour of the poor given the constraints discussed above.

If these constraints are not dealt with or removed, growth will have no meaningful impact on the lives of the poor. There is need to learn from past failures regarding the relationship between growth and poverty alleviation. Sen (1986, cited in Sachs 1991:292) illustrate this clearly: ‘country after country has learned the hard way that the so called trickle down theory is fallacious, that growth can be immiserizing, that famines also happen in periods of boom when people’s entitlement does not allow them to buy and/or produce the food necessary to keep them alive’

Given the level of poverty in the world today, there is therefore need for change in strategy or approach in dealing with poverty reduction by making growth pro-poor. This entails, inter alia, an understanding that growth on its own cannot address poverty. The Director of the World Bank, Ian Goldin indicated the importance of pro-poor growth: ‘we have come to understand that economic growth, though necessary, is not enough to deal with poverty’ (Sunday Times, 1 September 2002: 15).

The Case For Increased Civic Awareness & Improved Communication-Education And Advocacy

Since Tanzania got independence more than four decades ago, poverty, ignorance and disease have remained outstanding thorns in the back of any government in power. Until today, these so-called arc enemies can be seen, read and experienced on many faces. At the same time, as a member of the international community, Tanzania has committed itself to achieving internationally accepted standards related to these very issues, like the Millennium Development Goals. This is why the government came up with the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty, trading under the Kiswahili acronym of MKUKUTA.

The implementation of such programmes revolves on the axis of tackling growth, income and non-income poverty and ensuring good governance and accountability. This is what downloads everything to the local government level of action. This is why the Local Government Reform Programme is such a vital tool.

The four areas due to be addressed, under the programme, involve making fundamental changes in the way powers and resources are allocated within government. No where in the world have such proposals been implemented without encountering problems.
The decentralization by devolution process within the environs of the local government in Tanzania is a massive undertaking. On top of that, it requires the participation of a wide range of stakeholders at national, regional and local levels. It cannot leave anybody behind. Even the input of ‘those who would lose their stake (stake-losers?) in the process is required.

As of now, there is a strong platform for local government reform in Tanzania. On it are central government and line ministry representatives, the regional administration itself and its Association of Local Authorities of Tanzania (ALAT), the civil society, academic institutions e.t.c.

Because of the weak financial muscle of the country, the so-called development partners and donors have reserved seats. They need to fully not only understand but also appreciate the programme if they are to explain it to their taxpayers at home before embarking on supporting it.

At the end of the day, whether this programme is to succeed or not will depend on the performance at the ground level. And that is the crux of the matter.

The extent to which this programme can succeed or fail will depend on the amount of information available to all the stakeholders, not a few selected
ones. Every means of carrying information across must be exploited. That is, seminars, conferences, print media, electronic media and even drama so as to achieve the following:

To increase people’s awareness on the reform so that it can get wider understanding and, therefore, support.
To identify areas of success in one area and publicize them as a way of opening up eyes of other performers in other areas.

To identify aspects those have not been fully understood by stakeholders and mount their popularization programmes through various media.

To pick positive and negative experiences from other countries that have tried to reform their local government system to help keep the Tanzania exercise on track.

To monitor the democratization processes and disseminate information on it as one of the major instruments for attaining good governance and accountability at the level of councils.
Therefore there has got to be increased civic awareness, improved communication, education and advocacy on the proposed local government system. A comprehensive media strategy must be put in place and vigorously implemented.
The whole country must be covered. No district should feel having been left out of the process. Experiences from one district must only be an eye opener for others. They are not items of copying like a blotting paper. The districts are supposed to work out their reform programmes drawing on their own circumstances.